Ancient Fortress of Oinoi, site Lefka, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

Ancient Fortress of Oinoi, site Lefka, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

The ancient municipality of Oinoi is mentioned by Herodotus as one of the "most distant municipalities of Attica". According to Thucydides, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, in 431 BC, when the Spartans invaded Attica, Oinoi was the first settlement to be besieged, but not occupied. Most likely the inhabitants of Oinoi had taken refuge inside the ancient fortress, whose construction dates back to classical times.

Ancient Tower of Oinoi, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

Ancient Tower of Oinoi, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

Next to the Old National Road Athens - Thebes, at the height of the modern settlement of Oinoi (Mazi), the northwestern corner of an ancient quadrilateral tower is preserved. It is maintained at a height of 14m. and it is estimated that it had a total of four floors. Dates back to the 4th c. BC. The Tower, which had a supervisory and defensive character, should be associated with the ancient road Athens - Eleusis - Thebes, as well as with other monuments of the respective period that exist in the area, such as the Ancient Fortress of Oinoi, Eleftherai and Panaktos, as well as with the ancient circular tower on the hill Velatouri.

Archaeological Site of Aigosthena, Porto Germeno, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

Archaeological Site of Aigosthena, Porto Germeno, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

“...remoteness has preserved for us a Greek fortified town

in better condition and greater completeness than any other...

a place, for those who have seen it, to marvel at and return to”  

                                                                                E.F. Benson, 1895

Fortification Wall Dema, Ano Liosia, Municipality of Phili

Fortification Wall Dema, Ano Liosia, Municipality of Phili

1) Dema Wall. It is located 3km west of the center of Ano Liosia, in the saddle between Parnitha and Mount Egaleo, which was the widest passage from the west to the Athenian plain. The name Dema is newer and means link (bundle) of Egaleo with Parnitha.
2) A Circular tower-observatory is located at the top of the hill Pyrgarthi, 180m. east of the Dema wall.
3) "Back Wall". It is located about 225m. east of the Dema Wall and parallel to it.

Fortress of Eleutherai, site Kaza, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

Fortress of Eleutherai, site Kaza, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

The archaeological site of Eleutherai encompasses part of the lowland and rocky hill, where the ancient fortress, known as Gyftokastro, stands. Eleutherai was allegedly the birthplace of Dionysus, who founded the homonymous city and was thus called Dionysus Eleuthereus. Originally a Boeotian city, Eleutherai went over to Athens in the sixth century BC. Strategically located on the borderline of the Athenian territory, with control over the narrow passage between Athens and Thebes and overlooking the plain of Oinoe, Eleutherai was part of the Athenian defence network in the fourth century BC.

Fortress of Fyli. Municipality of Fyli

Fortress of Fyli. Municipality of Fyli

Fortification work of the 4th century B.C. which controls the mountain pass between Attica and Viotia. It is located about 1000m. southwest of the place where the ancient municipality of Fyle is located.

Tomb of Kar, beginning of ancient Scironian Odos, Municipality of Megara

Tomb of Kar, beginning of ancient Scironian Odos, Municipality of Megara

West of the city of Megara and next to the National Road, on a hill at the beginning of the ancient Skironian Odos, the foundations of a large circular building are preserved, which is probably related to a tower - observatory that controlled the passage of Skironidos road and ensured the safety of passers-by in times of war. This monument has also been identified as the tomb of Kar, after the legendary king of Megara.

Tower-Fryktoria of Limiko, Parnitha, Municipality of Acharnes

Tower-Fryktoria of Limiko, Parnitha, Municipality of Acharnes

In the area of Loimikos, in the northern part of the mountain range of Parnitha, there is a fryktoria-observatory of the first half of the 4th c. BC, known as Loimikos Tower. The purpose of its establishment must have been the surveillance of the road that came from the plain of Tanagra and led from the eastern passages to Athens.

Tower-Fryktoria, Mount Egaleo, Municipality of Petroupoli

Tower-Fryktoria, Mount Egaleo, Municipality of Petroupoli

Remains of a circular tower - fryktoria, with a diameter of 5.50m. and a height of 1.50 m., and its precinct at the top of Zacharitsa (altitude 452 m.) of Mount Egaleo in Petroupoli. It was built in order to receive messages from the west and send them to Athens and vice versa, as well as to monitor the wider area.

Towers of Vathychoria, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

Towers of Vathychoria, Municipality of Mandra-Eidyllia

The Vathichoria villages, Mikro Vathichori and Megalo Vathichori, are located on Mount Patera in an inaccessible area where traces of household, rural settlements, and towers can be found. The circular tower located north of Megalo Vathichori is one of the best preserved monuments of antiquity and is part of a series of at least six towers. The towers of the Vathychoria, belonging to the 4th century B.C. defense system of the Megarian region, guarded that mountain road in order to ensure safe passage for the armies from the Peloponnese to Boeotia.

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